This course is designed to give students the background information at the PTA level needed to understand the rationale used in treatment formation, progression, and termination.
Goals: Given the course textbook, personal notes, handouts, and other material, the student should begin to:
i. Demonstrate effective verbal and nonverbal communication skills.
ii. Develop a working knowledge about the etiology of specific diseases.
iii. Understand how the normal function of the body is altered by the disease process and be familiar with the results produced by this altered body function.
iv. Be able to apply knowledge of diseases and the disease process to treatment formation, progression, and termination.
v. Recognize clinical conditions/ changes in patient status which prohibit therapeutic intervention.
vi. Review current physical therapy literature.
The student will know that these goals have been successfully completed if he or she earns a final grade of “C” or higher as evaluated by the faculty of the department.
a. Given the course textbook, personal notes, handouts, and other material, the student should be able to do each of the following on a written and/or practical examination with an accuracy of 75% or higher as evaluated by faculty of the department:
i. Goal #1
1. Demonstrate understanding of language and terminology regarding etiology, pathology, signs/symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of diseases and injuries.
ii. Goal #2
2. List the etiology, pathogenesis, signs and symptoms, and treatment for various neurological, musculoskeletal, immunological, cardiac, vascular, pulmonary, integumentary, and endocrine disorders.
3. Explore etiology, pathogenesis, signs and symptoms, and treatement for various types of cancer.
iii. Goal #3
4. Contrast health and disease in terms of homeostasis.
5. Define and describe the etiology, pathogenesis, and effects of inflammation.
6. Outline the classification of inflammation and describe the pathological results of inflammation.
7. Define and describe the process of repair including which cells are/are not able to regenerate.
8. Differentiate between primary, secondary, and tertiary intention.
9. Relate the connection between the inflammatory process and repair.
10. Describe remodeling of tissue.
11. Explain complications of wound healing as well as factors that effect wound healing.
12. Define and describe types of immunity, antigens, antibodies and be able to explain the purpose for each.
13. Explain the immune response.
14. Define and describe hypersensitivity.
15. Classify the types of immune diseases as well as the types of hypersensitivity diseases.
16. Explain the effects of bone infection.
17. Explain the effects of vitamin and mineral deficiencies on the bone.
18. Explain the effects of delayed bone healing, mal-union of bone, and non-union of bone.
19. Define and describe common musculoskeletal injuries/diseases including whiplash, torticollis, kyphosis, scoliosis, lordosis, spondylolisthesis, rotator cuff tears, bicipital tendonitis, epicondylitis, Dupuytren’s contracture, deQuervain’s disease, GameKeepers thumb, Volkmann’s ischmic contracture, Carpal tunnel syndrome, Legg-Perthes disease, chondromalcia of the patella, talipes equinovarus, talipes calcaneovalgus, metatarsus varus, pes cavus, pes planus, hallux valgus, osteomyelitis, tuberculosis of bone, rickets, osteomalacia, osteitis fibrosa cystica, Osgood Schlatter, osteoporosis, herniated nucleus pulposus, bursitis, fibromyalgia, myofacial pain syndrome, fractures, dislocations, sprains, strains, avulsions, soft tissue injuries, muscular dystrophy, and arthritis.
20. Describe the significance of fractures, dislocations, avulsions, and soft tissue injuries for various areas of the body.
21. Describe the most prevalent areas for herniated nucleus pulposus.
22. Define and describe neurological injuries/diseases including spina bifida, cerebral palsy, CVA, head injuries, spinal cord injuries, peripheral nerve injuries, myasthenia gravis, thoracic outlet syndrome, meningitis, encephalitis, poliomyelitis, tetanus, rabies, herpes zoster, brain abscess, tabes dorsalis, Guillain Barre Syndrome, Multiple Sclerosis, Parkinson’s Disease, Friedreich’s Ataxia, ALS, Huntington’s Chorea, Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, chronic pain, facial palsy, Paget’s disease, hydrocephalus, syringomyelia, and epilepsy.
23. Describe types/classifications of muscular dystrophies, spina bifida, and cerebral palsies.
24. Differentiate between CVA’s caused by hemorrhage, thrombosis, and embolism.
25. Describe the different types of head injuries, spinal cord injuries, and peripheral nerve injuries.
26. Contrast the postictal phase of epilepsy with petit mal and grand mal seizures.
27. Define and describe pulmonary diseases/injuries including bronchitis, emphysema, bronchial asthma, pneumothorax, atelectasis, pneumonia, pleurisy, bronchiectasis, COPD, and pulmonary tuberculosis.
28. Define and describe cardiac diseases/injuries including atherosclerosis, arteriosclerosis, coronary artery disease, hypertensive heart disease, coarctation of the aorta, patent ductus arteriosus, pulmonary stenosis, atrial septal defect, ventricular septal defect, tetralogy of Fallot, valvular heart disease, rheumatic heart disese, endocarditis, and pericarditis.
29. Define and describe vascular diseases including anemia, hemophilia, aneurysms, Raynaud’s disease, causalgia, Sudeck’s atrophy, Buerger’s disease, phlebitis, and varicose veins.
30. Define and describe integumentary diseases including herpes simplex, ringworm, pediculosis, lupus erythmatosus, scabies, psoriasis, and warts.
31. Define and describe endocrine disorders including cystic fibrosis and diabetes mellitus.
32. Define hepatitis.
33. Define and describe various types of neoplasms.
34. Contrast benign and malignant tumors.
35. Describe classification of tumors according to cellular content.
36. Describe estimation of malignancy and prognosis by grading and staging.
37. Describe metastasis.
38. Investigate how genes transmit information and various genetic disorders.
39. Define and describe Alzheimer’s Disease and HIV/AIDS.
iv. Goal #4
40. Be able to apply knowledge of disease/injury to clinical treatment progression and termination.
v. Goal #5
41. Given specific diseases, identify precautions, contraindications, and signs/symptoms which prohibit physical therapy treatment.
vi. Goal #6
42. Complete 3 abstracts regarding disease/injury from peer-reviewed journals.