The course involves a detailed study of the effects of radiation exposure on biological systems. Typical medical exposure levels, methods for measuring and monitoring radiation, and methods for protecting personnel and patients from excessive exposure.
STATEMENT OF PURPOSE
RADR 2313 will include protection practices that the students will utilize in the clinical environment and provide the student with current dose limitations. The student will be better
COURSE GOALS AND COMPETENCIES
Given the course textbook, personal notes, handouts and other course material, the student should accomplish each of the following course goals as evaluated by the instructor.
1. Learn the technical terminology, facts, theories, methods and principles associated with radiation protection and radiation biology.
2. Apply the knowledge acquired to concrete or particular situations in the clinical environment.
3. Evaluate the learning experience from the perspective of the specific course objectives.
The student will know that these goals have been successfully completed when he or she earns a final course grade of “C” or higher.
B. COURSE COMPETENCIES
Given the textbook, personal notes, handouts, and other course materials, the student should be able to do each of the following on a written examination as evaluated by the instructor with an accuracy of not less than 75%.
1. Differentiate between ionic and covalent molecular bonds.
2. Describe the principles of cellular biology.
3. Define radiation.
4. Identify sources of electromagnetic and particulate ionizing radiations.
5. Discriminate between direct and indirect ionizing radiations.
6. Discriminate between the direct and indirect mechanisms of radiobiological effects.
7. Discuss the direct and indirect effects of ionizing radiation.
8. Identify sources of radiation exposure.
9. Describe radiation – induced chemical reactions and potential biologic damage.
10. Evaluate factors influencing radiobiologic/biophysical events at the cellular and subcellular level.
11. Identify methods to measure radiation response.
12. Describe physical, chemical and biological factors influencing radiation response of cells and tissues.
13. Explain factors influencing radiosensitivity.
14. Recognize the clinical significance of LD 50/30 and LD30.
15. Identify specific cells from most radiosensitive to least radiosensitive.
16. Employ dose response curves to study the relationship between radiation dose levels and the degree of biologic response.
17. Examine effects of limited versus total body exposure.
18. Relate short-term and long-term effects as a consequence of high and low radiation doses.
19. Differentiate between somatic and genetic radiation effects as well as discuss specific diseases or syndromes associates with them.
20. Discuss use of and information to be gained from various dose/response curves.
21. Discuss stochastic (probabilistic)and nonstochastic (deterministic) effects.
22. Discuss embryo and fetal effects of radiation exposure.
23. Discuss risk estimates for radiation – induced malignancies.
24. Discuss acute radiation syndromes.
25. Identify and justify the need to minimize unnecessary exposure of humans
26. Explain the objectives of a radiation protection program.
27. Define radiation and radioactivity units of measure.
28. Identify effective dose limits for occupational and nonoccupational radiation exposure.
29. Describe the ALARA concept.
30. Identify the basis for occupational exposure limits.
31. Distinguish between perceived risk and compar
32. Describe the concept of the negligible individual dose.
33. Identify ionizing radiation sources form natural and man-made sources.
34. Comply with legal and ethical radiation protection responsibilities of radiation workers.
35. Describe the relationship between irradiated area and the effective dose.
36. Describe the theory and operation of radiation detection devices.
37. Identify appropriate applications and limitations for each radiation detection device.
38. Describe how isoexposure curves are used for radiation protection.
39. Identify performance standards for beam-limiting devices.
40. Describe procedures used to verify performance standards for equipment and indicating the potential consequences if the performance standard fails.
41. Describe the operation of various interlocking systems for equipment and indicate potential consequences of interlock system failure.
42. Identify conditions and locations evaluated in an area survey for radiation exposure.
43. Distinguish between controlled and non-controlled areas and list acceptable exposure levels.
44. Describe “Radiation Area” signs and identify appropriate placement sites.
45. Describe the function of federal, state and local regulations governing radiation protection practices.
46. Describe the requirements for and responsibilities of a radiation safety officer.
47. Express the need and importance of personnel monitoring for radiation workers.
48. Describe personnel monitoring devices, including applications, advantages, and limitations.
49. Interpret personnel monitoring reports.
50. Compare values for individual effective dose limits for occupational radiation exposures (annual and lifetime).
51. Identify anatomical structures that are considered critical for potential late effects of whole body irradiation exposure.
52. Identify dose equivalent limits for the embryo and fetus in occupationally exposed women.
53. Distinguish between primary and secondary radiation barriers.
54. Demonstrate how the operation of various x-ray and ancillary equipment influences radiation safety and describe the potential consequences of equipment failure.
55. Describe the different tissue interactions.
56. Explain the Law of Bergonie and Tribondeau
57. Explain the ALARA concept.
58. Describe why different types of radiation are assigned a quality factor.
59. Explain, compare and contrast the concepts of Linear Energy Transfer and Relative Biological Effectiveness.
60. Explain what the 10 day rule means.
61. Describe what the genetically significant dose is and means.
62. Describe what the mean marrow dose is and means.
63. Describe how the following relate to patient protection:
a. beam restriction
b. automatic exposure devices
c. exposure factors
f. patient position
g. film screen position
64. Describe how the following relate to occupational exposure:
a. scatter radiation
b. leakage radiation
c. NCRP guidelines / equipment
d. Cardinal rules
e. Inverse square law
65. Solve the inverse square law formula
66. Solve for the HVL and TVL
67. Describe the following units of measurements:
68. Perform the equation to change from rad to gray and rem to sievert.
69. List and describe the NCRP Dose Limit recommendations.
70 Explain the possible methods of bioterrorist attacks.
71 Define the role of a radiologic technologist during a bioterrorist attack.
72. Perform calculations of exposure with varying time, distance, and shielding.
73. Discuss the relationship between workload, HVL, TVL, use factor and shielding design.
74. Identify emergency procedures to be followed during failures of x-ray equipment,
75. Demonstrate how time, distance and shielding can be manipulated to keep radiation exposure to a minimum
76. Explain the relationship of beam limiting devices to patient radiation protection
77.Discuss added and inherent filtration in terms of the effect on patient dosage
78. Explain the purpose and importance of patient shielding
79. Identify various types of patient shielding and state the advantages and disadvantages of each type
80. Use the appropriate method of shielding for a given procedure
81. explain the relationship of exposure factors to patient dose
82. explain how patient position affects the dose to radiosensitive organs
83. identify the appropriate image receptor that will result in an optimum diagnostic image with the minimum radiation exposure to the patient
84. select immobilization techniques used to eliminate voluntary motion
85.describe the minimum source to tabletop distances for fixed and mobile fluoroscopic devices
86. apply safety factors for the patients and others in the room during mobile radiographic procedures
All homework is to be typed, not handwritten unless otherwise instructed. Please use 12 font.
Unit exams will be announced well in advance of the date to be taken.
Unit exams will be available for review in my office for 5 days, they will not be returned.
Please note- some of the material covered in this course will come strictly from my PowerPoint’s, they will not be found in the text. Other information in the text will not be covered in my notes- you will be expected to read the text when a reading assignment is given and be responsible for the information. In this course you will learn how to develop critical thinking skills and apply them to problems / situations that occur in your clinical settings.