Radiation Biology and Protection Syllabus for 2021-2022
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Instructor Information

Office Location

Amarillo College, West Campus, Room 119

Office Hours

Office hours vary, please contact by phone @ 806-354-6099 or email at mghart@actx.edu 

Course Information

COVID-19 Protocols

Recording Policy

Disability Statement

If you have a disability (learning, mental, physical) that affects your ability to participate effectively and have access to any program or service at Amarillo College please contact Disability Services at (806) 345-5639 . Our offices are located in the Student Service Center office 112. More information may be found at www.actx.edu/disability.
Disability Services facilitates access to all programs and services according to the ADA, Americans with Disabilities Act and Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act, as well as other federal and state laws.

Amarillo College Web Accessibility Policy Statement

Amarillo College is committed to providing equal access to all programs and services, including all working, learning, and service environments that affect equal access for persons with disabilities. This commitment to provide equal access and opportunity for persons with disabilities is in compliance with federal and state law. Amarillo College also strives to provide Electronic and Information Resources (EIR) that are accessible to all authorized users.

If you find you are unable to access material in an accessible format please contact the Disability Services Office at (806) 345-5639 . This office will work in conjunction with other campus resources to address and accommodate your issue in a timely manner.

Statement for Mental Health and Advocacy & Resource Center:

As a student you may experience a range of issues that can cause barriers to learning, such as strained relationships, increased anxiety, alcohol/drug problems, feeling down, difficulty concentrating and/or lack of motivation. These mental health concerns or stressful events may lead to diminished academic performance or reduce a student's ability to participate in daily activities. Amarillo College offers services to assist you with addressing these and other concerns you may be experiencing. If you or someone you know are suffering from any of the aforementioned conditions, you can learn more about the broad range of confidential mental health services available on campus by calling the AC Counseling Center at 806-371-5900. The AC Counseling Center website is https://www.actx.edu/counseling/ . Also, if you are in need of social services (affordable housing, utilities, transportation, food, clothing, childcare, medical/dental/vision, legal), please call the AC Advocacy & Resource Center at 806-371-5439. The AC Advocacy & Resource Center website is https://www.actx.edu/arc

Amarillo College Tutoring for Success Policy:

The Tutoring for Success policy applies to any student whose grade or performance in the course falls below a departmentally determined minimum threshold. In either of those cases, the instructor will direct the student to the appropriate tutoring service, which may be faculty-led, discipline-specific, and/or general. Under this policy, the instructor will follow specific departmental guidelines governing the use, duration, and grade component of the tutoring need.

Administrative Drop Policy

Students who do not attend class on or prior to the census date will be administratively dropped. Effective Fall, 2016

Student Withdrawal Procedures

Students who wish to withdraw from a course must complete all steps indicated on the Academic Withdrawal Request form by the course withdrawal deadline.

NOTE: Students who are attending Texas institutions of higher education, for the first time fall 2007 and later, may not withdraw from more than six courses during their academic career. This withdrawal limitation does not include dual credit or developmental classes (Senate Bill 1231 Rule 4.10.) For more information on Drop and Withdrawal Policies, please visit the Registrar's Office Web site.

Privacy Statement

The Amarillo College Privacy Policy is found at https://www.actx.edu/-amarillo-college-privacy-notice , and applies to all Amarillo College students.  If you have questions about this privacy statement or you believe that your personal information has been released without your consent, send email to humanresources@actx.edu .


RADR-2313-001 Radiation Biology and Protection


Course Description

Effects of radiation exposure on biological systems. Includes typical medical exposure levels; methods for measuring and monitoring radiation; and methods for protecting personnel and patients from excessive exposure.

Student ResourcesStudent Resources Website

Department Expectations

Occupational License Disclaimer

Notice to Students enrolled in an educational program for preparation of issuance of certain occupational licenses:

Students enrolled in an educational program in preparation for obtaining certain occupational licenses are potentially ineligible for such license if the student has been convicted of an offense. For further information, please contact:

Melodie Graves
Justice Involved Advocate
Student Service Center 117
Make appointment at https://melodiegraves.youcanbook.me

You can also contact the Legal Clinic, or the faculty member in charge of the educational program that you seek to enroll in. The further information you will receive will include notification to you of your right to request a criminal history evaluation letter from the licensing authority in order to clarify your particular situation.


(3 sem hrs; 3 lec)

Class Type

On Campus Course

Syllabus Information



Radiation Protection in Medical Radiography, 8th ed by Sherer, Visconti, Ritenour, Haynes


Laptop with wireless WiFi capability; freestanding/detachable USB web camera (either clippable or on a stand) for online testing

Student Performance

At the end of this course, the student should be able to successfully:

Radiation Biology Objectives (ASRT)

â—† Differentiate between ionic and covalent molecular bonds.

â—† Describe principles of cellular biology.

â—† Identify sources of electromagnetic and particulate ionizing radiations.

â—† Discriminate between direct and indirect ionizing radiation.

â—† Discriminate between the direct and indirect effects of radiation.

â—† Identify sources of radiation exposure.

â—† Describe radiation-induced chemical reactions and potential biologic damage.

â—† Evaluate factors influencing radiobiologic/biophysical events at the cellular and subcellular


â—† Identify methods to measure radiation response.

â—† Describe physical, chemical and biologic factors influencing radiation response of cells and


â—† Explain factors influencing radiosensitivity.

â—† Recognize the clinical significance of lethal dose (LD).

â—† Identify specific cells from most radiosensitive to least radiosensitive.

â—† Employ dose response curves to study the relationship between radiation dose levels and the

degree of biologic response.

â—† Examine effects of limited vs. total body exposure.

â—† Relate short-term and long-term effects as a consequence of high and low radiation doses.

â—† Differentiate between somatic and genetic radiation effects and discuss specific diseases or

syndromes associated with them.

â—† Discuss stochastic (probabilistic) and nonstochastic (deterministic) effects.

â—† Discuss embryo and fetal effects of radiation exposure.

â—† Discuss risk estimates for radiation-induced malignancies.

â—† Discuss acute radiation syndromes.


Radiation Protection Objectives (ASRT)

â—† Identify and justify the need to minimize unnecessary radiation exposure of humans.

â—† Distinguish between somatic and genetic radiation effects.

â—† Differentiate between the stochastic (probabilistic) and nonstochastic (deterministic) effects

of radiation exposure.

â—† Explain the objectives of a radiation protection program.

â—† Define radiation and radioactivity units of measurement.

â—† Identify effective dose limits (EDL) for occupational and nonoccupational radiation


â—† Describe the ALARA concept.

â—† Identify the basis for occupational exposure limits.

â—† Distinguish between perceived risk and comparable risk.

â—† Describe the concept of the negligible individual dose (NID).

â—† Identify ionizing radiation sources from natural and man-made sources.

â—† Comply with legal and ethical radiation protection responsibilities of radiation workers.

â—† Describe the relationship between irradiated area and effective dose.

â—† Describe the theory and operation of radiation detection devices.

â—† Identify appropriate applications and limitations for each radiation detection device.

â—† Describe how isoexposure curves are used for radiation protection.

â—† Identify performance standards for beam-limiting devices.

â—† Describe procedures used to verify performance standards for equipment and indicate the

potential consequences if the performance standards fail.

â—† Describe the operation of various interlocking systems for equipment and indicate potential

consequences of interlock system failure.

â—† Identify conditions and locations evaluated in an area survey for radiation protection.

â—† Distinguish between controlled and non-controlled areas and list acceptable exposure levels.

â—† Describe “Radiation Area” signs and identify appropriate placement sites.

â—† Describe the function of federal, state and local regulations governing radiation protection


â—† Describe the requirements for and responsibilities of a radiation safety officer.

â—† Express the need and importance of personnel monitoring for radiation workers.

â—† Describe personnel monitoring devices, including applications, advantages and limitations

for each device.

â—† Interpret personnel monitoring reports.

â—† Compare values for individual effective dose limits for occupational radiation exposures

(annual and lifetime).

â—† Identify anatomical structures that are considered critical for potential late effects of whole

body irradiation exposure.

â—† Identify effective dose limits for the embryo and fetus in occupationally exposed women.

â—† Distinguish between primary and secondary radiation barriers.

â—† Demonstrate how the operation of various x-ray and ancillary equipment influences radiation

safety and describe the potential consequences of equipment failure.

â—† Perform calculations of exposure with varying time, distance and shielding.

â—† Discuss the relationship between workload, energy, half-value layer (HVL), tenth-value layer

(TVL), use factor and shielding design.

â—† Identify emergency procedures to be followed during failures of x-ray equipment.

â—† Demonstrate how time, distance and shielding can be manipulated to keep radiation

exposures to a minimum.

â—† Explain the relationship of beam-limiting devices to patient radiation protection.

â—† Discuss added and inherent filtration in terms of the effect on patient dosage.

â—† Explain the purpose and importance of patient shielding.

â—† Identify various types of patient shielding and state the advantages and disadvantages of each


â—† Use the appropriate method of shielding for a given radiographic procedure.

â—† Explain the relationship of exposure factors to patient dosage.

â—† Explain how patient position affects dose to radiosensitive organs.

â—† Identify the appropriate image receptor that will result in an optimum diagnostic image with

the minimum radiation exposure to the patient.

â—† Select the immobilization techniques used to eliminate voluntary motion.

â—† Describe the minimum source-to-tabletop distances for fixed and mobile fluoroscopic


â—† Apply safety factors for the patient, health care personnel and family members in the room

during radiographic procedures.

Students Rights and Responsibilities

Student Rights and Responsibilities

Log in using the AC Connect Portal

In order to receive your AC Connect Email, you must log in through AC Connect at https://acconnect.actx.edu .

If you are an active staff or faculty member according to Human Resources, use "Exchange". All other students, use "AC Connect (Google) Email".

Expected Student Behavior



Procedure for Communicating and Resolving Student Concerns


A student who has a grievance concerning an academic course in which he or she is enrolled should make an appeal in the following order to the:

1. Instructor.
2. Department Chair/Program Director.
3. Dean.
4. Vice President of Academic Affairs.
5. College President.


The purpose of this policy is to secure at the first possible level prompt and equitable resolution of student complaints, including those alleging discrimination on the basis of race, religion, color, sex, national origin, age, or disability.

The student may be represented at any level of the complaint.

Discrimination Complaints
Any student who believes that he or she has been discriminated against on the basis of race, religion, color, national origin, sex, age, or disability by the institution or its personnel may informally discuss the complaint with the Associate Vice President of Student Affairs with the objective of reaching a reasonable solution. The Associate Vice President of Student Affairs shall advise the student of his or her options in the situation and notify the Director of Administrative Services/Human Resources of the College.

If the aggrieved student believes the complaint has not been resolved at the informal discussion, he or she may submit a written complaint stating his or her name, the nature and date of the alleged violation, names of persons responsible (where known), names of any witnesses, and requested action within 30 working days of the date of the informal discussion, to the Vice President of Student Affairs. The Associate Vice President of Student Affairs shall ensure that the aggrieved student’s rights to appropriate due process procedures are honored. If a hearing is held, the Vice President of Student Affairs and the Associate Vice President of Student Affairs shall conduct the hearing. The Vice President of Student Affairs and the Associate Vice President of Student Affairs will consult with the College legal counsel and render a decision in writing on the complaint within ten working days. If this decision is not to the student’s satisfaction, he or she may appeal the decision to the Vice President of Student Affairs within ten working days of the receipt of the written decision according to procedures at Level Two below.


Level One
A student who has a complaint may either request a conference with the Associate Vice President of Student Affairs or submit the complaint in writing. Written complaints may be initiated at the following location: http://www.actx.edu/admission/complaint.

Level Two
If the outcome of the conference with the Associate Vice President of Student Affairs is not to the student’s satisfaction, the student has 15 calendar days to request a conference with the academic division chair or Vice President of Student Affairs, as appropriate, or designee(s), who shall schedule and hold a conference. Prior to or at the conference, the student shall submit a written complaint that includes a statement of the complaint and any evidence or witnesses in its support, the solution sought, the student’s signature, and the date of the conference with the division chair or Associate Vice President of Student Affairs.

Level Three
If the outcome of the conference at Level Two is not to the student’s satisfaction, the student has 15 calendar days to request a conference with the College President or designee, who shall schedule and hold a conference. Prior to or at the conference, the student shall submit the written statements required at Level Two and the date of the conference with the Vice President of Student Affairs.

After exhausting Amarillo College’s grievance/complaint process, current, former, and prospective students may initiate a complaint with The Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board. Directions are available at the following location: https://www.highered.texas.gov/links/student-complaints/


Each student will be required to prepare written assignments for credit and take written examinations as a part of this course. PLAGIARISM, ACADEMIC DISHONESTY OR ANY OTHER UNETHICAL CONDUCT WILL NOT BE TOLERATED. Such behavior may result in the student receiving a final course grade of “F” regardless of the other grades earned in class to-date.  One should conclude that any unethical conduct is absolutely prohibited by Amarillo College policy.  To be more specific, plagiarism, cheating, falsifying competency records, or any other unethical conduct, will be cause for a final course grade of “F”, or even dismissal from the program without the ability to re-enroll at some later date. 

Electronic devices that produce audible sounds must be deactivated in the classroom during class. This includes but is not limited to cellular telephones, pagers, and watches. Electronic devices will not be a distraction during lecture time (you cannot effectively listen and participate in class and utilize your phone or other device). Instructor reserves the right to have electronic devices placed in a common area at any time during the lecture and/or review time.

Grading Criteria

Grading Distribution:

The course grade will be computed as follows:

Average of Unit/Chapter Examinations = 40%

Average of quizzes/graded-assignments/Radiation Safety Assignment = 20%

Final Comprehensive Examination = 40 %


The following grade scale shall apply during this course:


A= 91.5-100    

B= 82.5-91.4                  

C= 74.5-82.4      

F= less than 74.5


A grade of “D” is not possible in this course!


You alone are responsible for your final semester grade. The instructor will not round final grades up to increase your letter grade.

There is no extra credit available for this course.  All grades are important, I encourage each student to put forth extra effort from the start of any course.

Non-scheduled assignments/pop quizzes cannot be made up, if missed, a grade of zero will be entered into the grade book. Any/All scheduled assignments/quizzes/exams that are scheduled and not completed in the time or place scheduled can be completed but with only 80% of the original score within the first 24 hours, after 24 hours, a zero will be added into the gradebook. For example, if a quiz is scheduled during an in-class meeting and you are not in class, you can complete, but the 20% reduction will be applied.  You are responsible for turning in your assignment complete and on time by the due date and time.

Unit exams can be made up if a student misses the exam on the scheduled day/time. Timely arrangements will need to be set up by the student to complete the make-up exam within 1-2 school days.  Make-up exams will receive only partial credit of 80%.

*Partial credit refers to 80% of the original maximum point value.

For example, if a student takes a 100-point unit examination at an unscheduled time or late due to an absence. If the score is 90% on the make-up exam, a 72% (90 x.80=72) will be recorded in the grade book.

In the case of extreme circumstances, the instructor will consider elimination of the 20% reduction if prior arrangements have been made with the instructor.

Any scored activity not completed in accordance with these policies shall be scored as ZERO credit and will be averaged as such into the final course grade. 

Radiation Safety Assignment

RADR 2313 will consist of a Radiation Safety Assignment that will count as a two quiz grades in the grade book.

Radiography Program Tutoring Policy

Mandatory tutoring (may be in the form of class remediation, post exam worksheets, a personal meeting with the instructor, or other as deemed necessary) is required if a student scores below 75 on a major exam in the course.  It is the responsibility of the student to complete/attend a tutoring session or activity before the next exam.  Students who fail to attend tutoring will not be allowed to take the next test until remediation is done.

Remote Testing Rules

1. During the pre-exam portion, students are required to take a student photo, show valid photo ID, and preform a complete environment scan with the detachable web cam. Any approved blank scratch page or standard calculator (nonscientific) must be shown on pre-exam scan.  After the complete environment scan, you should properly place the detachable web cam. A properly placed web cam should be at about a 45° angle You will also need sufficient lighting during the pre-exam and exam portions and the microphone must be turned on and recording.
A. Approved scratch paper: (1) 8.5 x 11 dry erase sheet that is supplied by the instructor (if you are supplied with the dry erase sheet, that is the method you should utilize) or (2) blank piece of paper (can only be utilized if a dry erase sheet is not supplied by the instructor) that is no larger than 8.5 x 11, if utilizing this type of scratch paper, it must be torn up or cut up in view of the instructor after completing the exam and prior to the video being terminated.
B. Approved calculator: standard nonscientific calculator or the enabled standard calculator in Respondus Lockdown browser.

2. No smart technology allowed in the same room, other than the computer on which you are testing. (no tablets, smart watches, etc). If a calculator is required, you can utilize a basic calculator and have a blank piece of scratch paper that is no larger than 8.5 x 11.

3. You may not leave the room for any reason during the exam, plan accordingly for this.

4. If you are booted off the exam, you may retrieve your phone because you must take a screen shot of what it shows when it boots you off and send it to the instructor immediately.

5. If you are booted off, you must immediately attempt to log back in to the exam.

6. No two students (or more) may test in the same room at the same time. Each student should be alone while testing.

Failure to comply with any of the above rules will result in a 10 point reduction in the test grade for EACH infraction. For example, if you get booted off and wait 30 minutes to log back in (which the instructor can monitor) and you do not take a screen shot and send it to the instructor, that will result in a 20 point reduction of your test grade. If you are sick and think you may need to leave to go to the restroom, do NOT begin the exam. Contact the instructor to work out a different time to take the exam.

Any student who thinks that a penalty was misapplied can request that the penalty be reviewed according to the grievance procedure.


Regular and punctual attendance is necessary for satisfactory achievement. It is the responsibility of the student to attend class. The student is responsible for any missed information from any missed classes.  

If a student is in attendance for an exam, but does not have his or her laptop and is unable to take the exam during the scheduled day/time, it will be considered a missed exam and the partial credit from section above will then apply when the student schedules the make-up exam.


RADR 2313 Biology and Protection; Fall 2021; Semester start date: 8/23/2021

Week 1: Syllabus review; Lecture Ch. 1 & Ch. 2

Week 2: Lecture Ch. 2 & 3

Week 3: Exam 1 (Ch. 1, 2, & 3); Lecture Ch. 4

Week 4: Lecture Ch. 4 & Practical applications

Week 5: Lecture: Ch. 5 & Radiation Safety Assignment

Week 6: Exam #2 (Ch. 4 & 5)

Week 7: Lecture Ch. 6 & 7

Week 8: Exam #3 (Ch. 6 & 7); Lecture Ch. 8

Fall Break 10/18-24/2021

Week 9: Lecture Ch. 8 & 9

Week 10: Exam #4 (Ch. 8 & 9); Lecture Ch. 10

Week 11: Lecture Ch. 11 & 12

Week 12: Exam #5 (Ch. 10, 11, & 12); Lecture Ch. 13

Week 13: Lecture Ch. 14 & 15

Week 14: Exam #6 (Ch. 13, 14, & 15)

Week 15: Catch up as needed; Final Review

Week 16: Comprehensive Final Exam (covers all course material)

***There will be a graded pre-lecture quiz before the majority of the chapters, these quizzes are typically scheduled a week in advance.

Note: Lecture content and exam dates are subject to change



Serious effort and consideration were used in developing this syllabus, course outline, and calendar.  While the syllabus is considered an education contract between the instructor and student, unforeseen events may require a change (e.g. a change in schedule).  Every effort will be made NOT to change policy that affects the calculation of a final grade.  However, the instructor reserves the right to make other changes deemed necessary to best fulfill the course goals and objectives.  Students registered for this course will be made aware of any such change in a timely fashion using reasonable means.


Also, the instructor reserves the right to make an exception for any student who has the misfortune to encounter a severe illness, accident, or other serious event that causes excessive course disruption.  Any such exception will be made on an individual basis and will not be grounds for setting a precedent.


Additional Information

WITHDRAWAL DEADLINES: Please refer to the Amarillo College Catalog for more information.

Syllabus Created on:

08/18/21 8:57 PM

Last Edited on:

08/22/21 4:58 PM